Sunday, 28 May 2017

Atoms are neutral,yet 'reacts' to form compounds,why?

Every element have at least one stable form among its isotopes (if there are more than one). The outer orbit of electrons decide the activity of an atom,while the things inside the nucleus never interfere with the stability unless there are tremendous conditions like that of nuclear fission and fusion.

An atom, considering the most stable isotope is highly stable. Among them certain atoms are extremely stable due to the completion of octet,namely the inert gases. Certain elements are extra stable due to the symmetry of outer orbits. Still they form compounds under situation, forgetting that they can alone live for ever healthy. 
What could be the possible reason?

Hydrogen Orbitals (wikipedia)
The incomplete octet is a good answer,but it is not a good reason to validate and prove the phenomenon. 

When certain atoms,with their unique outer shell comes closer,they will have an overlap; Better to say,they undergo overlapping. This overlaps will create fluctuations in the orbitals. 
But how can the electrons revolving around nucleus ever overlap? They are mere particles,isn't it? And of course like charges repels. 
Then what is the sense in advocating such a statement?
Bohr's Atomic Model (wikipedia)

I too had this doubt when I read about this in Arthur Beiser's Introduction to modern physics. Later I understood,I was me who creates the misunderstanding. I was still limiting my thoughts inside Bohr's model of atom.

To clearly understand the overlaps we have study the M.O.Theory of electronic orbitals,which students generally studies in the Chemistry at lower classes.

Incorporating the M.O.Theory and the concept of waves,we can imagine the electrons around a nucleus to be cloudy than mere particles. Yes, Clouds in various shapes having electronic charges,just like atmospheric clouds having electric charges which strikes as lightning. If you are really interested in knowing the shapes and their causes mathematically better speed up your basics on quantum mechanics,Schrodinger wave mechanics,Heisenberg ideas and Study the Hydrogen atomic orbitals.

Hydrogen atom orbitals (Wikipedia)

Coming to our question,it is now easier to imagine. Electrons are like certain 3 dimensional clouds around nucleus with electronics charge. These clouds,just like the atmospheric clouds can overlap,mingle,collide and finally change their shape. This mutual influence will change the stability of outer orbitals and that of the entire atom.

What could those poor unstable atoms can do? 

Find some most stable form and stabilize immediately,so that both the strange atoms can stabilize together. Given suitable conditions,size and shape of the atoms they form suitable stable compounds. As it entirely changes their outer orbital face,the properties of the parent atoms will too change entirely. 
The properties of the new compound depends upon the form they squire according to the circumstances they form.

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Source : allmystery

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